jueves, 13 de septiembre de 2012

Byzantine art





The currents of Late Byzantine culture, shaped by foreign conquest of Byzantine lands, diplomatic marriage, travel, and international trade, are reflected in the wealth of surviving portraits from the Late Byzantine sphere. Throughout the empire’s long history, donors, authors, and the ruling elite chose to commemorate themselves in portraits in all media, including monumental mosaic and fresco, miniature painting, sculpture and coinage. This tradition continued into the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, both in Byzantium and in its neighboring states, with the majority of portraits surviving in miniature and monumental painting.Traditions for representing the authority and the prestige of the Byzantine emperor were adopted not only by the Byzantine emperors of the Palaiologan dynasty, ruling from the ancient capital of Constantinople. They were also taken up by rulers in the provincial Byzantine states of Epiros (their capital in Arta, Greece), and Trebizond on the Black Sea (modern Trabzon, Turkey). These provincial Byzantine rulers in Arta and Trebizond vied for power and prestige with the emperor in Constantinople. The Byzantine imperial portraits illustrating this essay—in miniature painting and in sculpted gold—represent the ruler wearing the imperial crown, or stemma, with hanging jewels and pearls; the gemmed loros, or stole, over a long red or purple tunic; and imperial footwear, which were dyed in red or purple as well. Red and purple were colors special to the Byzantine ruling family since the empire’s earliest foundation. Each of these Byzantine rulers carries the imperial scepter surmounted by a cross, a sign of his Christian faith, as well as a scroll or the imperial akakia, a pouch filled with earth, a symbol of his humility. In the late fourteenth-century portrait of the Byzantine ruler of Trebizond, he is joined by his wife, the empress Theodora. Theodora wears richly decorated, red garments embroidered in gold with a repeat pattern representing the double-headed eagle, one of the symbols adopted by the Late Byzantine imperium. The empress, like her husband, wears the imperial crown with hanging jewels and pearls, and in her left hand she carries an orb, symbolizing the couple’s earthly rule. The two imperial figures flank a bust portrait of Saint John the Baptist, the patron saint of the monastery to which they are making a significant donation, recorded in the scroll they hold and the very document upon which their portrait is painted. Numerous highly specialized ritual objects are required for the performance of the Orthodox Liturgy, and typically these were fashioned from the richest materials available, such as gold, silver, and copper. Although there are significant numbers of luxurious liturgical objects dating from the Early and Middle Byzantine periods, examples are fairly rare for the last centuries of the empire. This situation can be attributed to a general shortage of raw materials, consequentially leading to the melting down of both sacred and secular gold and silver objects to acquire bullion to strike currency. This occurred during periods of extreme economic crisis facing the state.

Most Late Byzantine liturgical objects that have survived are found in monastic treasuries, where they have been preserved through the centuries. Although a great deal of material has not survived, it is fortunate that numerous contemporary depictions of the celestial liturgy can provide us with further insight into these objects’ appearance and usage.

The corpus of extant liturgical objects either exhibits the continued development of Middle Byzantine forms, or displays increasing Western influence. This is not surprising, as Venice overtakes Byzantium as an exporter of luxury goods, and itself becomes the center of artistic innovation.
Many of the liturgical implements required for the performance of the Orthodox liturgy parallel those used for the Catholic Mass—the paten for the bread of the liturgy; the chalice for wine; and censers for burning incense. Another object used in both the East and West would be rhipidia, a metal fan representing the tetramorph, or four-faced cherubim that hover around God’s throne. These fans frequently contain highly complex iconographic programs; they were placed at the end of long poles and held over the book of the Gospels as a gesture of respect, and also waved to keep insects away from the Eucharistic elements. Lighting devices fall under the rubric of liturgical implements. One of the most remarkable surviving examples in this category is a complete choros, or chandelier, comprised of twelve horizontal openwork strips, decorated with sphinxes. Each of these sections contains either four or six candleholders; numerous polykandela were suspended below the linked ring of strips, supported by openwork chains.

Activity:

Answer,
What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?


Reference
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2000) Byzantium: faith and power. New York.

50 comentarios:

  1. 1. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    monumental mosaic and fresco, miniature painting, sculpture and coinage also for their painting use a lot of gold for halos

    2. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    They focused in the realigion mainly in jesus crist and his sacrifice.

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  2. 1. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The application of geometry, they used fresco, they made sculpture and they used a lot of gold

    2. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    Byzantine art is a stylized, religious art form, distinguished by its naturalism

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  3. 1. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    Freso used technique, paintings, and many sculptures that they some are with gold
    2. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    the Byztantine relies much on religion

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    1. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por el autor.

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  4. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    Fresco, Gold painting, religious painting
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art? The Religion

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  5. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    They haVe many icons. they were the early Christian Art, they recover the Hellenistic culture. they decorated with old and new testament the small windows.And use gold for they sculpures.
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    Religion

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  6. 1. Gold was the main material they used at sculptures. Geometry that was from Hellenistic Period, but they used the new testament.

    2. the most repeated figure at byzantine art was the religion, such as God, Christ and crucifix.

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  7. Sebastian Arana
    What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture? they maid many figures or sculptures and paintings of gold ,fresco and religios paintings

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    their religion

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  8. Este comentario ha sido eliminado por el autor.

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  9. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The beauty cannon of this time was religion.
    What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    They made relief sculputeres, they created catacombs and indside where paintings that represented the story of God. In painting this time had: Pantocreator, Teothokos and Deesis and in architecture they created monasterys.

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  10. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    They used religion, that was his inspiration at that time.

    What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    They converted catacombs in churches underground, they made paintings of god, Jesus(Pantocrator), and Mary(Thetokos), relif sculpures,they made iconography and there were icons and built the first church that was Saint Mary Basilica.

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  11. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The religion.
    What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    the iconography that they had to make because they were hiding ,they made the fish and the plant also Jesus and Mary.

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  12. Rodrigo Diaz 1370331

    1) they focues on the fresco and in that time the gold was a very important part in this and also the geometry

    2) the religion was very important for them and they said that with this they could create all that important things

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  13. -What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The main theme that they used in this time was religion, also they combined Hellenistic style with art from the arabian world. They used golden details.

    -What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The main inspiration for this people as i mentioned was religion so they created the pantocrator that is Jesus always holding a bible and making a sign with his hand, the theotokos that is the virgin Mary she could de carrying Jesus or pointing at him and the deesis which is the pantocrator, the theotokos and st. John the Baptist.
    Holly people always have a golden circle.

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  14. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    they used fresco, they made a lot of sculpture and they used a lot of gold

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    the inspiration was the religion

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  15. -What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    geometry they used fresco, they made a lot of sculpture and they used a lot of gold

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    the inspiration was the religion

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  16. . What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The main idea was the religion in this time the must famous paint was the freco and they use gold.
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    It was all about religion

    Mariana Pérez Sáenz

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  17. The attributes of Byzantine art and the architercture was religion, at that time the religion was in charge of many different things and was a very important part of society and belives.

    The inspiration od the Byzantine art was mainly religion and gurchs.

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  18. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    - They go back at the Hellenistic style, at this time religion was the main theme. They also used fresco and gold in their paintings and sculptures.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    - Were inspired by religion such as Christ and his sacrifice.

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  19. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    Gold is one of the key attributes on Byzantine art as halo on their principal characters. Also they were in fresco and they applied a lot of geometry.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    Religion; Jesus Christ and his crucifix.

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  20. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    Anything that has religion in it because that was the manner that they think in that period to build.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    Religion.

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  21. 1. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture? FRESCO,SCULPTURE, AND THEY MUST USE GOLD.


    2. What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    jesus , religion , the church etc, etc.

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  22. -What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    A:
    Beauty canon: RELIGIOUS.
    -THE GOLDEN DETAILS (light of god).
    -They combine hellenistic and arabian styles.
    -They create icons.
    -Iconography:
    Pantocrator (big eyes, big eyebrows, little nose, little mouth, lage neck, always carrying a book).
    TEOTHOKUS: Always taking care of baby Jesus, or beside him.
    DEESIS: (vigin Marry, Jesus Christ, St. John the Baptist.
    -Walls and copulass decorated with old and new testaments scenes.

    -What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    As I mention before, the inspiration of most of the Byzantine art was religion, that is why the beauty caonon is religion.

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  23. 1. The attributes of byzantine art was religion, they only care about that and how to represent it, the use a lot of gold. They mostly represent the Pantokrator, Theotokos and Deesis.

    2. Their inspiration was religion, they only wanted to show that.

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  24. 1.- the most important of the byzantine art was that they have in first place religion and they represent the pantokrator theotokos and deesis that was jesus, virgin m. and jesus sant john and virgin.

    2.as i write in the other answer the main idea was the religion and they only want represent that.

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  25. The most important of the byzantine art was how they represent there religion and was the most important thing in the byzantine art.

    the inspiration of this was also the religion this was his beauty canon

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  26. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The use of fresco, the gold in the sculptures and the religion paintings.
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    Their main focus of the byzantine art was the religion, using paintings like the pantocratos and the deesis.

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  27. 1) What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    They used a lot of gold,they used gold to make sculptures, they were focused in their religion to create everything.

    2)What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    Their inspiration was their religion: Theotokos and Pantocratos.

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  28. 1 the techniques they used and their combinations, the use of the gold in their art, that they were very focused on religion.

    2 their inspiration was based in religion

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  29. -- Using of fresco and using gold in their sculptures and the religious art.

    -- They were inspired by the religion with the theotokos and the pantocrator.

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  30. The purpose was to create icons, so that everything has a secret meaning, they were focused on the image not in the decoration, they use a lot of gold because they thought that it was the light of god.

    They inspired in a religious work of art, mainly in Pantocrator: that was Jesus Christ the one that has the power, Theotokos: the mother of god. These two both had a golden circle around their heads because they were holly.

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  31. 1.- the use of the geometry and fresco

    2.- they focus in the religion, jesus, virgin mary

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  32. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The use of Fresco, and the gold in the works, also the use of icons.
    The religion, more especific, the catholic religion.

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  33. 1.What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    A= the use of the fresco, and use the gold insculptures and paintings.


    2.What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    A= the religion, jesus christ, was the inspiration of Byzantine art

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  34. 1.- What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    The use of the geometry, fresco and paintings.

    2.- What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    The catolisism, Jesus Christ, the religion is the mos important in byzantine art.

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  35. 1.- What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    -The use of the geometry, fresco and paintings to create gold sculptures and things of religion
    2.- What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    -the inspiration was the religion and it was the catolisism
    :)

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  36. 1-They have a lot of icons also they were the early Christian Art, we saw some examples in the class and we saw that they recover the Hellenistic culture. they used FRESCO and some gold for their sculptures


    2- The religion

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  37. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    Byzantine paintings are identified by their rich colors and flat, large-eyed figures. Backgrounds were typically painted gold.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    The inspiration of Byzantine artists was to teach the viewer RELIGIOUS LESSONS, therefore the images were clear and easily understood.
    His inspiration was to show the religion that they had in that time.

    JONATHAN TIZÓN LORENZO 1370370

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  38. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The artwork of the period focuses mainly on religious subjects that were portrayed conservatively and with little room for artists’ personal expression. Domed churches and decorative mosaics were characteristics of Byzantine architecture.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    the religion,The intention of Byzantine artists was to teach the viewer religious lessons, therefore the images were clear and easily understood

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  39. 1) geometry, they used alot of gold and fresco technique
    2) their religion

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  40. PEDRO ATILANO HDEZ. A01169905

    What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The technique of fresco, the geometry and they used gold for sculptures but they inspired in the religion.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The inspiration of the byzantine art was the religion.

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  41. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    they used fresco in the paintings of the walls, in the architecture they used a lot the geometry, and the golden section of the greeeks
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    the religion

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  42. 1=the use of the geometry and fresco
    2=Their inspiration was their religion Theotokos and Pantocrato
    Oscar Lopez Torre
    A01370750

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  43. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    They use a lot of geometry in the arhitectures,they also use the fresco, and continue using the things of the romans and greeks almost the egypts
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The religion alll the icons like the golden thing that they put to de gosd in there heads

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  44. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    Byzantine
    The painting and mosaics, more than his sculpture, had a unique importance in history
    Including architecture completes the formal system of the ancient Christian basilica with Dome, and used the Greek cross plant and the centralized.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    Greek, Hellenistic, Roman and Oriental styles.
    javier mirmontes
    A01169728

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  45. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    It was religion, at that time the religion was in charge of many different things and was a very important part of society and belives.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    They were inspired in his religion

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  46. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The use of fresco and geometry and their religious work of art.
    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The inspiration of Byzantine art was religion, the have an icon that represented Jesus a fish. Jesus was their Pantocrator.

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  47. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    -The key were geometry, fresco technique and gold sculptures.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    -They inspiration was the Religion.

    Andrea Bravo Villalobos A01370591

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  48. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?
    The key was that they used the fresco in paintings, they also used geometry for every detail in this and they created gold.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?
    The inspiration was the faith, religion , jesus christ, catolisism. RELIGION


    SARA VALERIA NAVARRO REYES 1370368

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  49. What are the key attributes of Byzantine art and architecture?

    The use of golds in details, a combination of arabian and hellenistic style, and the use of icons such as the Pantocrator and the Teothokos.

    What was the inspiration of most of Byzantine art?

    Religion was the only inspiration. Everything had to have a religious purpose according to the beauty cannon.

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